Drinking clean water is important for people, plants, and animals. Water can be contaminated with chemicals, pathogens and other impurities which cause illness and some health issues. So make your water safe for drinking with simple purification techniques. But, how to purify water?
Depending on the purpose, water purification or treatment system of water differs. There are many natural sources of water wherein most of the cases the water contains many impurities. In the water purification process, impurities may be completely removed or partially depending on the uses. In purified water, many soluble or insoluble impurities, bad taste, bacteria, bad odor are eliminated. Generally, municipal water is used for drinking purpose and some household purposes. Bad taste, bad order, insoluble impurities, and bacteria are not tolerable for drinking purpose. In such a case, soluble impurities are good and useful for health.
How to purify soft water?
Nowadays it became easy to purify the water. There are simple and easy solutions for your questions, how to purify water, how to purify soft water and how to purify salt water for making it suitable for drinking and other purposes. All the methods are effective when the process is done properly. However you choose only one method which is convenient and comfort to you. The following are some of the common methods of water purification.
This is a consistent way to purify water. However, boiling needs fuel and takes some time. Moreover, in summer days, we don’t actually prefer hot water, further, you need to filter the water in order to remove the solid particles specifically if the water was taken from some doubtful water resource.
Use of Iodine solution, tablets or crystals
This is a more convenient and effective method. It is also available in various forms where you surely find the one that suits your budget. It has the ability to kill bacteria and viruses. They are easy to use and are lightweight. It takes about 30 minutes for the process to complete. But it has some different taste you may not like it and it is not suitable for pregnant women. Just drop the tablet into the container of water, shake the container and try to hold the bottle upside down and then slightly unscrew the lid in order to let the iodine flow into the threads of the bottle cap.
Use chlorine drops
Chlorine has ability to kill the bacteria in water. It is affordable, lightweight, and easily accessible. You have to wait for 30 minutes to drink the treated water. Make sure that you don’t put too many drops because it is dangerous and poisonous if you use it too much.
Use a water filter
Water filters remove bacteria from the water. Carbons, on one hand, remove the chemicals and add awful taste whereas iodine coated screens will further remove viruses. The treated water can be consumed immediately after the treatment and water does not have any bad taste. However, they are heavier than chlorine, iodine and needs pumping manually & costs more. Even you need to clean the filters at some point and need to replace the filters after using them for treating several gallons of water.
Use ultraviolet light
This looks like a small flashlight. Just rustle it around in the water for a few minutes and then bacteria can be killed. This is easy to carry along with you and can be used easily. You need batteries to operate and batteries may run out. But the solid particles in water are not filtered.
How to purify water with Water Softener?
The regular tap water consists of very little sodium ions. Water softener adds the sodium to the tap water and the amount of sodium added depends on the hardness of the water. Hard water contains a large amount of magnesium and calcium. Some of the water softening systems replaces the magnesium and calcium ions with sodium ions. The higher the levels of magnesium and calcium the more the sodium ions are required to soften the water.
An 8-ounce glass of softened water usually contains less than 12.5 milligrams of sodium ions which is very less said by Food and Drug administration’s which is not risky for healthy people. But if you are on very low sodium diet and are very concerned about the amount of sodium in softened water then consider the water purification system which uses potassium chloride instead of sodium ions. In any case, it is important to remember and keep in mind that the majority of sodium intake in the average person’s diet is from processed food or table salt.
Reverse osmosis: The solution for how to purify soft water is reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis is the best way to remove a large number of contaminants from the water. Since the reverse osmosis was developed to desalinate the seawater, it very effectively removes the sodium from the water which leaves you with sodium free, chemical free, healthy and great tasting water.
How to purify water from fluoride and other soft metals?
Water filters are effective in removing the range of contaminants from water but not all the water filters remove all the contaminants. It wholly depends on the type of water filter you are using. One single water filter cannot remove everything from the water but the combination of filtering methods will help to produce pure water. There are two ways in which the water filters work: one is physical filtration and active and the other is chemical filtration. By using the combination of filter types along with one or more treatment method you can be able to remove approximately everything from the water.
Fluoride is the chemical which is added to water supply in most of the places to reduce the tooth decay. It cannot be removed by catalytic carbon or GAC. The most effective and cost-efficient way is reverse osmosis system or bone char filter and the combination of two gives the best result. Bone char is a special type of activated carbon which is made from the carefully cleaned and selected animal bone. Most of the animal bones contain a large amount of compound called hydroxylapatite which is a special form of calcium apatite that attracts fluoride.
When bone char exposed to water containing fluoride, the filter exchanges the fluoride ions with hydrogen ions by removing fluoride from water. This type of filter removes almost 90% of fluoride from drinking water. The fluoride amount in water is also reduced by the reverse osmosis system. Reverse osmosis pushes the water through a special membrane which has tiny pores that blocks everything and passes only the pure water. Generally, oxidizing filters remove the soft metals like iron and manganese. GAC filters reduce sulfur content from the water.
How long to boil water to purify?
Boiling water is one of the safest methods of purification. Whether you are out camping in a country with un-sanitized or under drinking water or you fear of drinking local water which is contaminated, boil the water to kill the germs and parasites. If you are traveling, boiling water is the cheapest and safest way to drink instead of purchasing the water bottles. However, it’s important to know how long to boil water to purify.
Boiling water is one of the most effective methods of purifying. For doing this you need a heat source such as stove or cooker, and a vessel to hold water. According to the United States Environmental protection agency and Washington State Department of health, you should need to keep the water boiling for 1 minute to get purified. At altitudes that are above 1 mile, 2000 meters you need to increase the rolling time to 3 minutes.
How to purify salt water?
There are several ways of removing salt from water and use it as drinking water. Desalination is the process to remove salt from salt water which is necessary if you are lack of drinking water in your area. The below are the methods for how to purify salt water.
Method1: Using a pot and stove
Get a large pot which has lid and large empty drinking cup. The glass should be big enough to hold the required amount of drinking water. Make sure that glass is short enough to fit in the pot with a lid on it. Put the Pyrex or metal cup which is safest on the stove. Now pour the salt water into the pot do not overfill the pot. Stop it before reaching the mouth of the glass, so that it won’t enter any salt water into the glass or any contaminants. Place the lid upside down on the pot which allows the water vapor to get a drip into the drinking glass as it gets condensed. Position the pot lid to the highest point or its handle facing down towards the glass.
Make sure that the pot lid has a good seal with the edges of the pot because without good seal there may be a chance of steam to escape which reduces the supply of fresh water. Now bring the water to slow boil because over boiling can contaminant the drinking water. Too much of heat can even break the glass. When the water boils it becomes like water vapor and condenses in the air as steam and on lid’s surface as water droplets. The droplets then go down to the lowest point and get drip right into the glass placed in the pot. It probably takes 20 minutes to complete the process. Wait for a while before drinking the water and be careful while taking out the glass because some salt water left in the pot may not mix with the fresh water.
Method2: Using solar desalination
Collect salt water in container or bowl. Make sure that you don’t fill it completely, leave some space at the top of the container so that saltwater doesn’t get splash into freshwater. Also, make sure that your container or bowl is watertight because if there is any leakage then the salt water will drain away before it gets steam. There should be full of sunlight because the method needs several hours to complete the process.
Place some cup in the middle of the container or bowl. Do it very slowly so that salt water does not slash into the cup. Now cover the bowl with plastic wrap and make sure the wrap is not too tight or too loose. Be sure that plastic wrap has a tight seal on the rim of the salt water bowl. If there are any leaks in plastic wrap then steam or fresh water may escape.
Use a sturdy brand of plastic wrap so that it does not tear. Place weight or rock in the middle of plastic wrap. This makes the plastic wrap to dip in the center allowing the fresh water to drop in the cup. Be sure that the weight you put on the plastic wrap is not too heavy so that the wrap may tear off. Make sure that the cup placed in the center of the bowl.
Now place the salt water bowl direct to the sunlight, this will heat the water and makes the condensation to form on plastic wrap, as the condensation forms the droplets of fresh water will drip from plastic wrap into the cup. This will allow you to collect the fresh water slowly. Be very patient as this method takes several hours to complete the process. After you have fresh water enough then drink it which is safe and desalinated.
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